Jennifer Ellison Brown: Muscle contraction and types of movement

first_imgEvery movement that takes place in the body depends on muscles. They work by contracting. The cardiac muscles in the heart contracts to pump blood out of the heart. Involuntary muscles in the artery walls contract to squirt the blood along and voluntary muscles which will be the main focus work when needed. A voluntary skeletal muscle contains nerves, which carry messages to and from the brain. Therefore, a muscle contracts when messages from the brain race along the nerve fibres, telling them to contract. It relaxes when the messages tell the fibres to lengthen again. Muscles work in pairs or groups. They have to work in pairs because muscles can only pull, they can’t push. For example, the biceps and triceps work together to execute the arm curl movement. To flex the arm, the biceps contract and the triceps relax. To straighten it, the triceps contract and the biceps relax. Large numbers of pairs of muscles are needed to work together in the different ways for even simple body movements. The muscles take on different roles, depending on the movement that is performed. They can work as: – Flexors contracting to bend a joint – Extensors contracting to straighten a joint – Prime movers or agonist contracting to start a movement (biceps muscles perform this role in arm curl) – Antagonist relaxing to allow the movement to take place (the triceps muscles perform this role in arm curl) The biceps and triceps will swap places as the prime mover and antagonist when arm is straightened. – Fixators contracting to steady parts of the body to give the working muscles a firm base. (the deltoid perform this role in the arm curl) – Synergist reducing unnecessary movement when a prime mover contracts. They can also fine tune the movement (the brachialis in the forearm performs this role in the arm curl) When a prime mover contracts, the antagonist muscle will keep some fibres contracting to exert a ‘braking’ influence to stop the prime mover moving the joint so hard that the antagonist are damaged. Sometimes this system fails, for example, when a sprinter is running flat out, he may tear the hamstring and quickly come to a painful stop. The muscles we use depend on the activity, whether it requires muscles in the upper body or lower body to work together for short periods, or both at different phases of the activity, or most of the muscles of the body vigorously for longer periods (wrestling). All muscles contract and develop tension. However, the type of resistance the muscles meet will determine the type of muscle action. There are three main types of muscle contractions: – Isotonic concentric the muscles shorten as they contract and the ends of the muscle moves closer together e.g.; the biceps when doing pull ups. Most sporting movements are of this type. – Isotonic eccentric the muscles lengthen as they contract under tension, the ends of the muscles move further apart. e.g. the bicep works in this way when the body is lowered from pull-up position. – Isometric contraction the muscles stay the same length as they contract, there is no movement so the ends of the muscle stay the same distance apart. Shoulder muscles work in this way during the tug-o-war activity and the stabilising muscles that hold parts of the body steady as other parts move in many sporting movements. When we perform sporting activities we move our limbs in many different directions to affect the type of movements needed to execute various skills. Special words are used to describe the movements: – Extension The limbs straighten at the joint, eg, reaching to catch a ball (netball) – Flexion The limbs bend at the joint, eg, bending the trail leg at the knee when clearing hurdles. – Abduction The limbs move away from the midline of the body. – Adduction The limbs move towards the midline of the body – Rotation Circular movement. Part of the body turns while the rest remain still, E.g. rotation of the hip to play a shot in golf. – Circumduction- The end of a bone move in a circle, e.g., bowling in cricket – Inversion A lifting of the medial border of the arch combines with a medial bending of the front of the foot. – Eversion A slight rising of the lateral border of the foot combines with a slight lateral bending of the front of the foot. – Pronation Rotation of the forearm so that the palm turns medially. – Supination Rotation of the forearm so that the palm turns laterally. PAINFUL STOPlast_img read more

Read More »

President greeted by protesters during Berbice visit

first_imgPresident David Granger was on Wednesday greeted by protesting former sugar workers as he arrived in Corriverton, Berbice to deliver an address on Local Government Elections (LGE).The dismissed workers were protesting for their severance pay without further delay. The Guyana Sugar Corporation (GuySuCo) closed the Skeldon and Rose Hall Sugar Estates in December last year and has since only paid the workers half of their severance.The disgruntled former workers, who were also supported by the People’s Progressive Party (PPP) regional representatives, also used the opportunity toPresident David Granger and PNC General Secretary Amna Ally at the Berbice meeting on Wednesday afternoonprotest over the poor performance of the Skeldon Hospital.“The hospital is not functioning as it should, it doesn’t have drugs. People go there and are given prescriptions to go to private pharmacies to purchase the drugs that doctors at the hospital are prescribing,” Regional Party Chairman Zamal Hussain told Guyana Times.Meanwhile, he called on President Granger to intervene as it relates to the perceived position of the Guyana Elections Commission (GECOM) on the upcoming LGE.“There is a lot of fraud. Corruption reeks at GECOM. We have been saying that this will happen from the time the President unilaterally elected [Retired Justice James] Patterson as the Chairman,” Hussain said.He added that the PPP has always expressed its concern over the unilateral appointment of the 84-year-old Patterson.“In fact, we are against this constitutional dictatorship attitude of the President whereby he has appointed this 84-year-old man to take up that position at GECOM… The GECOM Chairperson is the key in how the 2020 elections will be run,” Hussain said.Hussain spoke on behalf of some ex-estate workers, who were present at the protest. Their severance, he said, should be the full payment and not 50 per cent. Hussain called on the Government to provide transportation for children in theProtesters lined the road as President David Granger arrived in Berbice on Wednesdayvarious areas, whose parents are now jobless.LGE meetingMeanwhile, addressing the gathering at Corriverton Primary, the Head of State said there was more progress and greater productivity when more persons participated in Local Government Elections.He said LGE were a constitutional right of each citizen.“You now have a chance to exercise that right for the second time since the APNU [A Partnership for National Unity] came into office,” the Head of State noted. According to Granger, Corriverton is a fundamental part of the country since it is the base of Guyana. “You are the commercial capital of Berbice.”Granger said the town has all of the ingredients to become a striving community. “What is holding you back is the administration that you have here. You have to go out to the polls and change that.” He added that the town needed strong leaders to direct its 12,000 residents in the right direction. “We need people with a vision…This prosperity is not for persons of one party, it is for everyone and their children,” the Head of State said to loud applause.The President urged that a massive mobilisation exercise be carried out on LGE Day, saying that it should be done on a house to house basis. “So that every adult is brought into the web of Local Government Elections and understand the need for Local Government Elections.” The Head of State also noted that community members needed to form themselves into organisations as they prepare for the November 12 LGE. (Andrew Carmichael)last_img read more

Read More »

Huskies win dampened by toxic move by one of the Sexsmith Vipers

first_imgFORT ST. JOHN, B.C. – The Fort St. John Huskies were in action this afternoon for their final regular season game.Hosting the Sexsmith Vipers in what would be a preview of the upcoming series between the two teams during the first round of the NWJHL playoffs, it was the Huskies that would dominate the play from the get-go. Brandon Howard put the Huskies on the board just 1:35 into the first with an unassisted tally. Though Sexsmith’s goaltender would would stop ten of Fort St. John’s shots in the frame, he was no match for the Huskies’ power play. Sebastian Powsey made it 2-0 with just 26 seconds left in the period, assisted by Jared and Jacob Lang.The Huskies would double their lead in the second period, with an early and a late goal. Adam Bowie made it 3-0 with a shot from the slot, assisted by Tegan McMullin and Geoff Dick. A few minutes past the midway mark, the Vipers would finally get one past netminder Brody Greggain. However, Fort St. John would continue to dominate the period, outshooting the Vipers 22-14. After a mad scramble in front of the net during another Fort St. John power play, Matthew Apsassin sprawled out on the ice to sweep the rebound in to regain the Huskies’ three goal lead. Gary Loewen and Jacob Lang tallied assists on the goal.- Advertisement -The Huskies came out of the second intermission clearly in control of the game. After just five short minutes, Drew Fudger banged one home to make it 5-1, assisted by Bowie. Seconds after the ensuing face-off at centre, Vipers right winger Joel Demarke tousled with his opponent, Fort St. John forward Bradley Dixon. After briefly fencing with their sticks, Demarke then hit Dixon with a two-handed slash to the face.The game was delayed for several minutes while Dixon lay bleeding on the ice, and he was eventually helped off by the team trainer though he did not return to the game. Demarke was assessed a Match penalty for the hit, and also would not return to the ice. Opting to take the high road in response to the cheap shot, the Huskies quickly got to work to capitalize on the ensuing five minute power play. Winning the draw, Jacob Lang got the puck over to Matthew Apsassin. Apsassin then fed Gary Loewen, who made it 6-1 just four seconds after the start of the Vipers’ penalty, and ten seconds after Fort St. John’s fifth goal. The Huskies briefly lost momentum after taking a penalty to make it 4-on-4, but kept the puck mostly contained to the attacking zone. With just 3:17 remaining in the final act, Apsassin scored his second of the game, and the Huskies’ fifth power play goal, assisted by Gary Loewen and Jacob Lang. In the final minute, Shawn Wilson added an unassisted goal to seal the deal for the Huskies, with a final score of 8-1.The Huskies are back on the ice next this coming Wednesday, February 15th for Game 1 of their best of five series against the Sexsmith Vipers.Advertisementlast_img read more

Read More »

Japan World Cup team guide: fixtures, kits, key player, plus probable line-up

first_img 3 3 Japan take part in their seventh World Cup this summer. talkSPORT.com take an in-depth look at the Group H nation.MANAGERJapan picked an odd time to sack their manager, just two months before the start of the World Cup. Vahid Halilhodzic led them to qualification but was dismissed abruptly in April with the tournament just two months away.New manager Akira Nishino was handed a stark reminder of the task he faces Russia as his one and only game in charge so far ended in a 2-0 defeat to Ghana on home soil.CAPTAINMakoto Hasebe is Japan’s long-standing skipper. In his glory days, he was a key player in Wolfsburg’s 2008/09 Bundesliga triumph.At the age of 34, he has already been to two World Cups, including South Africa 2010 where he captained the side to the last 16.KEY PLAYERMuch of Japan’s hope depends on whether Shinji Kagawa shows up. The technically-gifted playmaker has reignited his career back at Borussia Dortmund after a hugely disappointing spell at Old Trafford.He failed to shine at Brazil 2014 as a Manchester United player, but his fortunes have improved since then.On his day, he can mix it with the best in Europe.ONE TO WATCHLeicester’s Shinji Okazaki is one of the most underrated players in the Premier League and he could be the difference for Japan up front.Japan have a tough group and their preparations have been turbulent to say the least, but the striker has that all-important know-how and will be a nightmare for any defence to cope with.FIXTURESTuesday, June 19: COLOMBIA v Japan (Mordovia Arena, Saransk) – kick-off – 13:00Sunday, June 24: Japan v SENEGAL (Ekaterinburg Arena, Yekaterinburg) – kick-off – 16:00Thursday, June 28: Japan v POLAND (Volgograd Arena, Volgograd) – kick-off – 15:00*You can listen to EVERY 2018 World Cup match live on the talkSPORT networkKITScenter_img RECORD IN QUALIFYINGThe Asian qualifiers are notoriously easy, but Japan topped the B side of the draw nonetheless. With their place in Russia already sealed, they lost the final game to Saudi Arabia, allowing the Saudis to qualify alongside them.TOURNAMENT PREPARATIONSAdmittedly, sacking your manager for no apparent reason two months before a World Cup isn’t the best way to prepare. Especially given the difficulty of their group fixtures.As mentioned earlier, Japan’s send-off game in Yokohama ended in a 2-0 defeat to Ghana (who didn’t even qualify for Russia) and they lost their other warm-up game, against Switzerland, by the same scoreline.BASE CAMPFC Rubin Kazan first team training ground, Kazan.PROBABLE LINE-UPKawashima; Yoshida, Hasebe, Makino; Harguchi, Oshima, Yamaguchi, Nagatomo; Honda, Kagawa; OkazakitalkSPORT will be with listeners all day and all night at this year’s 2018 FIFA World Cup™ with over 800 hours of World Cup content and all 64 games live across the talkSPORT network.last_img read more

Read More »

Ross Kemp reacts to Jordan Pickford’s saves in England v Sweden

first_imgEngland goalkeeper Jordan Pickford made a number of sensational saves during England’s World Cup quarter-final against Sweden on Saturday.Each one provoked rapturous applause across the country, especially from ex-Eastenders star and documentary maker Ross Kemp. How Hudson-Odoi has performed this season – Are Keane’s comments about him fair? 1 Fans given sneak peek into England’s Euro 2020 kit with images leaked online explained sad day England announce another friendly to begin preparations for Euro 2020 drama Latest England News How does Euro 2020 draw work? England discover fate live on talkSPORT 2 have a look TALENT Second is best Martin Peters, 1966 World Cup final goal scorer for England, dies aged 76 center_img Tributes to ‘complete gentleman’ Martin Peters following England legend’s death England announce Euro 2020 warm-up matches against Austria and Romania GETTING READY There is a Group of Death at Euro 2020 and here’s how England can avoid it preparation RIP LEGEND Mason Greenwood scores as England U21s beaten by late Netherlands wondergoal ‘Spain and Italy would have built their teams around Jack Grealish’ – Harry Redknapp ANALYSIS The 53-year-old has become a cult hero during Russia 2018 after filming multiple topless videos of himself celebrating the Three Lions’ progression through the tournament.His video after the Colombia last 16 tie went viral, and his celebration of Harry Maguire’s opener against Sweden was special, but this one might top the lot.You can watch the full video below. pic.twitter.com/1tBzS7Gkab— Ross Kemp (@RossKemp) July 7, 2018 Pickford seriously impressed as England marched towards World Cup semi-finals last_img read more

Read More »

DDTV VIDEO: LENNON DELIGHT AS HOOPS CLAIM SCOTTISH CUP

first_imgCeltic forgot about their disappointment at not winning the league after easily brushing aside Motherwell 3-0 to win the Scottish Cup.It’s the club’s first trophy since 2009 and Neil Lennon’s first as manager. Goals from Ki Sung-Yeung, Charlie Mulgrew and an own goal by Motherwell captain Stephen Craigon gave Celtic the silverware.“We’ve had a great season and fell short in the championship, but this is a fitting end,” said Lennon“I’m delighted for everyone associated with the club. It’s an important day. The performance today merited it.”A sensational 32nd minute strike from Ki Sung-Yeung was enhanced by Mark Wilson’s deflected shot and an inch-perfect Charlie Mulgrew free-kick five minutes from full-time to hand Lennon his first silverware in charge of Celtic. The Co Armagh man was proud to claim a trophy in his debut season, despite the disappointment of narrowly losing out on the league championship to Rangers last week.“It’s the first trophy for a few years and the players deserve it – so do the supporters,” said Lennon.“Motherwell did very well and made a great contribution to the final, but we were superb.“We were a bit too clinical at times and tried to walk the ball into the net at times.“You can’t deny the quality in the squad, and it manifested itself again today.”A turbulent season for Lennon was rounded off with the news from the club’s majority shareholder, Dermot Desmond, that a long-term contract would be forthcoming in the next few days. “I hope so,” said Lennon. “It’s a great privilege and Mr Desmond has been very good to me in my time as manager so far.“Even in my time as a player, he gave me great counsel throughout the season.“For all Celtic supporters out there, he’s a huge Celtic fan and he has the best interests of the club at heart.“He was as disappointed as anyone with the way the season ended, so I hope he’s enjoyed himself today.” Celtic’s squad were also praised by Lennon and he pledged to bolster the playing staff and maintain a free-flowing style of play next season.“We love the game, we try to entertain and we try to win with a bit of style,” said Lennon.“It doesn’t always get you over the line – but if we keep playing and strengthening the squad in a few areas, we’re not too far away from having a very good team.“We’ll sit down and look at some options and identify players – whether we get them or not is another thing.“But the players we’ve brought in are great – they’ve all made a huge contribution to the season.”DDTV VIDEO: LENNON DELIGHT AS HOOPS CLAIM SCOTTISH CUP was last modified: June 18th, 2011 by gregShare this:Click to share on Facebook (Opens in new window)Click to share on Twitter (Opens in new window)Click to share on LinkedIn (Opens in new window)Click to share on Reddit (Opens in new window)Click to share on Pocket (Opens in new window)Click to share on Telegram (Opens in new window)Click to share on WhatsApp (Opens in new window)Click to share on Skype (Opens in new window)Click to print (Opens in new window)last_img read more

Read More »

Wildcats prove too strong for HSU

first_imgThe No. 3 team in the country proved too hot to handle for Humboldt State on Friday, as visiting Chico State spoiled the Jacks’ homecoming with a doubleheader sweep in softball.Playing their first home games since early March, the HSU women lost 7-0 and 10-8, seeing a late lead disappear in the nightcap.The Chico women dominated the opener, opening up a 5-0 lead after two innings and holding on for their 40th win of the season behind a strong pitching performance from Haley Gilham.Gilham …last_img

Read More »

Unilever SA in R1bn sustainable project

first_img1 February 2013Unilever South Africa will open a new factory worth over R800-million and spend R200-million on upgrading and expanding existing plants, the company announced on Thursday.The factory – to be built adjacent to Unilever’s primary distribution centre in Anderbolt in Boksburg, east of Johannesburg – will produce a number of cleaning brands such as Omo, Handy Andy, Skip, Comfort and Sunlight.Construction on the site will “commence shortly and will incorporate Unilever’s latest manufacturing technologies”, the company said in a statement. The first products are expected to roll off the production lines in 2014.“This factory forms part of a multi-year, multi-billion investment plan by Unilever South Africa to cater for our growth,” said chairperson Marijn van Tiggelen.The investment also forms part of the firm’s “sustainable living” plan, which aims to build the business while cutting down on its overall environmental footprint.‘Determination to sustainability’“This new factory is another example of Unilever’s vision in action – to double the size of our business while reducing the environmental impact,” said Unilever’s chief supply chain officer, Pier Luigi Sigismondi.“Not only will it enable us to grow our presence in the region, but it also highlights our determination to sustainability as it will use the latest technology and insights to create a low energy, environmentally efficient factory with zero waste to landfill.”The investment will also make a difference to the company’s customers. “It will enable us to better serve South African consumers with innovation and green technology, as well as improve service levels to our retail customers,” Van Tiggelen said.“The R800-million project is one of Unilever’s largest investments globally and underscores our commitment to the long-term future of South Africa and the continent as a whole.”The project is supported by the Department of Trade and Industry’s 12i Tax Allowance Incentive scheme, which is designed to support greenfield investments – industrial projects that make use of only new and unused manufacturing assets.The tax incentive scheme also covers brownfield investments – expansions or upgrades of existing industrial projects – and will support Unilever’s R200-million upgrade and expansion of its existing factories.The investment follows the opening of the Unilever Savoury dry foods factory in KwaZulu-Natal by Trade and Industry Minister Rob Davies in December 2011.“We have a long history in South Africa and we have a strong commitment to its future, its growth and economic development,” Sigismondi said.SAinfo reporterlast_img read more

Read More »

Green Star certification for 50th SA building

first_img10 March 2014 The Green Building Council South Africa (GBCSA) has certified auditing firm Ernst & Young’s new headquarters in Johannesburg as the 50th green building on its Green Star SA rating system, the organisation announced last month. The council, established in 2007, uses a voluntary rating system which sets standards and provide clear guidelines as to what constitutes a “green building”. The Green Star SA is based on the internationally recognised Australian Green Star rating system and has been customised for South Africa. “We are absolutely thrilled by the uptake in green building in South Africa,” GBCSA CEO Brian Wilkinson said in a statement. “In the past few months the number of buildings that have been certified, or which have applied for certification, has increased exponentially – with 20 buildings being certified in 2013 alone.” Nine government buildings have been certified, including the six-star Department of Environmental Affairs head office in Pretoria, the five-star Sisonke district office in Ixopo, KwaZulu-Natal, and the five-star National English Literature Museum in Grahamstown in the Eastern Cape. The system encourages developers and architects to minimise the environmental impacts of their developments. Among other things, it rewards projects for reducing waste sent to landfill, and for building designs that yield reduced energy and water consumption and lower operating costs. Buildings are rated using a sliding scale, from the six-star Green Star SA certification, which indicates “world leadership”, to five stars for “South African excellence” and four stars for “best practice”.Government leading by example “The support has been widespread, but of most significance is the take-up of Green Star SA by government bodies and big businesses from banks to property developers,” Wilkinson said, adding that the government, as the country’s largest owner and operator of property, played an influential leadership role. “It’s encouraging to see the country’s leadership take up international best practice when it comes to green buildings, and we are delighted that there are nine government buildings certified to date. One of the only three 6-star buildings to be certified so far in South Africa is also in this category.” center_img The business case for green building According to construction company McGraw and Hills’ World Green Building Trend survey (2013), 51% of South Africa firms expect to be building green by 2015, most notably in the commercial markets, where companies are recognising that green buildings can produce measurable financial value. “Developers have identified that there are clear environmental benefits for building green as well as a compelling business case,” Wilkinson said. “Going green is not just about the environment; the bottom-line benefits of building and operating green buildings are particularly important considering South Africa’s rising energy costs and water scarcity – coupled with lower risks, improvements to employee productivity and, ultimately, better investment returns and higher property valuations.” South African banks with Green Star-rated buildings include Nedbank, with one 5-star and two 4-star rated buildings, Standard Bank with its five-star office development in Rosebank, Johannesburg, and Old Mutual and Firstrand Bank, with their joint initiative five-star Portside building in Cape Town. Other notable Green Star-rated buildings in the country include the six-star Vodafone Site Solutions building in Midrand, Johannesburg; the five-star DSTV City in Randburg, Johannesburg; the five-star Chevron Project Core building in Cape Town; and the No 1 and No 2 Silo buildings in Cape Town (six-star and four-star respectively). Several buildings belonging to commercial property developers have also achieved Green Star status, including Shepstone & Wylie’s four-star 24 Richefond Circle building in Durban, and Growthpoint Properties’ four-star Lincoln on the Lake and Mayfair on the Lake developments in KwaZulu-Natal. Because developers have kept increasing utility costs, potential carbon taxes and stricter regulations in mind when it comes to rental premises, they have recognised that green buildings can fetch lease premiums and retain tenants for longer than conventional buildings, the GBCSA says. South African tenants are also increasingly demanding green buildings, as they provide a healthier and more productive indoor environment and reduce the consumption of energy and other resources. “Globally, the built environment is responsible for one-third of all carbon emissions, and with global warming a very real concern that affects us all, a shift in focus to green building is something that should be foremost in everyone’s minds – from government to developers to the average man in the street,” Wilkinson said. SAinfo reporterlast_img read more

Read More »

Free Filmmaking Wisdom

first_imgFilm IndependentFilm Independent’s mission is to “champion the cause of independent film and support a community of artists who embody diversity, innovation and uniqueness of vision.” They do that through a whole host of various events, communities, festivals and forums. In these sound bites you get a sense of the quality of a Film Independent event and the quality of the discussions. If you can get to one, you definitely should. The global filmmaking community is an invaluable resource for established and aspiring filmmakers alike. Bookmark these great online resources for insightful filmmaking wisdom.If you’re just starting out on your filmmaking career then learning from those who have gone before you is a fantastic way to help find your feet in an ever changing industry. Today’s technology opens the doors to anyone who wants to make a film, even just on their iPhone, as long as they have the will to make it happen.We all need wisdom, encouragement and inspiration along the way so it is well worth dipping in and out of these great resources on a regular basis for an extra boost to keep pursuing your filmmaking dreams.Film CourageFilm Courage offers excellent nuts and bolts advice to independent filmmakers in a straight shooting format. If you want to hear from expert professionals who have living and breathing what they’re describing (most having started from scratch) this is the place to start.Film Courage covers every practical aspect of filmmaking from networking, financing, writing, directing and much more. Time spent here is time well spent. BAFTA GuruThe BAFTA Guru series is a hugely impressive collection of lectures, interviews and short insights from a star studded collection of actors, directors, producers, writers, editors, sound designers and more. You could spend hours and hours absorbing all of these opinions and perspectives so it’s probably best to focus your attention the creative sphere that most interests you.center_img BFI – Ask An ExpertThe British Film Institute has a great YouTube channel called ‘Ask an Expert‘ which features some fantastic Q&A’s with world renown filmmaking experts including directors, actors, documentary makers and more. All of the questions have been suggested via Facebook and Twitter, so if you want to be to post a question – keep an eye on those social networks.last_img read more

Read More »