Weight relaxation just for wrapped bread

first_imgCraft bakers selling unwrapped loaves cannot take advantage of the recent relaxation of bread weight laws, which abandons specified loaf quantities, because the new legislation only applies to packaged bread.As reported in British Baker, an EC directive to be introduced next April will scrap ancient restrictions that limit loaf sizes, weighing more than 300g, to multiples of 400g. However, unwrapped bread falls outside the directive’s scope.The National Weights and Measures Laboratory (NWML) has launched a consultation, due to close in January, proposing that rules governing unwrapped bread weights should be relaxed in line with packaged loaves.In the meantime, The National Association of Master Bakers is advising craft bakers who sell unwrapped loaves to stick to the ’400g rule’ until the rules are clear. “Bakers need to be sure they are not going to fall foul of their Trading Standards Officers (TSOs),” said a spokesperson.LACORS told British Baker that, in “99.9% of cases”, TSOs would not prosecute bakers selling unwrapped bread outside specified quantities, but that they would be “technically breaking the law”.Warburtons and Tesco are among those already selling packaged loaves outside the traditional 400g-multiple format.last_img read more

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Animals from Junk by Chance

first_imgHow to build an animal: throw junk DNA at it.  That seems to be the latest idea on where higher animals came from.  A press release from University of Bristol posted on Science Daily and EurekAlert announced, “‘Junk DNA’ Can Explain Origin And Complexity Of Vertebrates, Study Suggests.”    The basic idea, coming from scientists at Dartmouth College and University of Bristol, is that a proliferation of micro-RNAs appeared in early vertebrates like lampreys that was “unparalleled in evolutionary history.”  The scientists compared genomes of living fish (sharks and lampreys) and invertebrates like the sea squirt.    Because micro-RNAs are implicated in higher organisms, the circumstantial evidence convinced them of a correlation: “Most of these new genes are required for the growth of organs that are unique to vertebrates, such as the liver, pancreas and brain,” said Philip Donoghue of Bristol.  “Therefore, the origin of vertebrates and the origin of these genes is no coincidence.”    Dr. Kevin Peterson of Dartmouth put the discovery into a larger context: “This study not only points the way to understanding the evolutionary origin of our own lineage, but it also helps us to understand how our own genome was assembled in deep time.”There you have it: the Darwin Party buzzwords necessary to make the eyes glaze over: deep time, understanding, evolutionary origin, zzzz.  While you were sleeping you didn’t see the magic tricks.  They threw junk at a sea squirt and poof!  A pancreas emerged!  then a liver!  then a brain!    So happy Darwin Day.  Stop thinking so hard.  Join the party.  Have some fun.  Get involved in this game – blind man’s bluff.(Visited 7 times, 1 visits today)FacebookTwitterPinterestSave分享0last_img read more

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Revisiting an Energy Saving Handbook from 1979

first_img This article is only available to GBA Prime Members Rummaging through the shelves of a used book store, my son Noah came across an old paperback called Energy Saving Handbook. Written by James W. Morrison, the book was published by Harper & Row in 1979.A brief web search failed to reveal any biographical information about the author. However, I discovered that the book was published under several different titles, and was distributed by at least four state energy offices. Morrison’s book may have been funded by the U.S. Department of Energy; some of its chapters seem to have been repurposed from government brochures.This book came out at an interesting time for the field of residential energy efficiency (1979). It was six years after the first oil price shock (the 1973 OPEC oil embargo); three years after the Department of Energy launched the Weatherization Assistance Program; and two years after Gautam Dutt, the discoverer of the thermal bypass, had his “aha!” moment in a New Jersey attic. In 1979, the Iranian revolution caused turmoil in the international oil market — precipitating the second oil price shock of the 1970s.Back in 1979, in spite of Gautam Dutt’s 1977 epiphany, most weatherization workers still had an incomplete understanding of how air leakage affected home energy bills. That’s not too surprising, considering the fact that blower doors were not yet commercially available. (Gadsco began marketing the first blower doors in 1980.)By the late 1970s, residential energy experts were beginning to pay attention to airtightness. In the “Energy Saving Handbook,” Morrison notes, “To determine the heat loss from infiltration, it is necessary to know the rate of air movement through the homes. Most houses undergo from one to three air changes per hour, depending on construction.”Morrison’s estimates of the average natural air changes per hour in older homes was probably accurate. By today’s… Start Free Trial Already a member? Log incenter_img Sign up for a free trial and get instant access to this article as well as GBA’s complete library of premium articles and construction details.last_img read more

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